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Elementos de gramática que tenés que conocer – Grammatical Terms you need to know

Active Voice
The verb form in which the subject of the sentence performs or causes the action expressed by the verb.
Example:
Mariana hizo unos alfajores de fécula de maíz buenísimos.
Adjective
The part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun.
Example:
Mozo, tráigame un cortado por favor.
Adverb
The part of speech that modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Example:
Acá cerca, en Plaza Dorrego, venden unas artesanías interesantísimas.
Clause
A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. A clause may be either a sentence (independent clause) or a sentence-like construction included within another sentence (dependent clause).
Example:
Ayer por la noche comí en el restaurante [independent clause], que me recomendó mi profesora de español [dependent clause].
Complex Sentence
A sentence that contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause.
Example:
No te preocupes por lo que diga la gente [independent clause], porque la gente siempre murmura [dependent clause].
Compound Sentence
A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses, often joined by a conjunction.
Example:
Mi hijo es muy trabajador [independent clause], y mi hija es muy estudiosa [independent clause].
Conjunction
The part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Example:
Mis amigos duermen y (conjuction) mis vecinos cantan.
Declarative Sentence
A sentence that makes a statement.
Example:
Ayer por la noche mi vecino me amenazó y yo hice la denuncia a la policía.
Dependent Clause
A group of words that begins with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction.
Example:
Yo soy la mujer [independent clause], que más te amó en toda tu vida [dependent clause].
Direct Object
A noun or pronoun in a sentence that receives the action of a transitive verb.
Example:
Yo como asado a la parrilla una vez por semana.
Exclamatory Sentence
A sentence that expresses strong feelings by making an exclamation.
Example:
¡Qué hermoso día!
Imperative Sentence
A sentence that gives advice or instructions or that expresses a request or a command.
Example:
Comé rápido el helado, porque si no lo hacés, va a derretirse.
Independent Clause
A group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a main clause.
Example:
La heladería que me recomendaste (independent clause), es excelente [dependent clause].
Indirect Object
A noun or pronoun that indicates to whom or for whom the action of a verb in a sentence is performed.
Example:
Dígale a Juan que Ana lo llamó por teléfono.
Interrogative Sentence
A sentence that asks a question.
Example:
¿Es verdad que el bife argentino es la mejor del mundo?
Noun
The part of speech that is used to name a person, place, thing, quality, or action and can function as the subject or object of a verb, the object of a preposition, or an appositive.
Example:
Susana camina muchísimo.
Passive Voice
A verb form in which the grammatical subject receives the verb’s action. Contrast with active voice.
Example:
Estos brownies fueron elaborados con mucho amor por mi abuela.
Predicate
One of the two main parts of a sentence or clause, modifying the subject and including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb.
Example:
Mariano y Romina (subject) cenarán en casa de sus padres (predicate).
Prepositional Phrase
A group of words made up of a preposition, its object, and any of the object’s modifiers.
Example:
De muy buena gana (prepositional phrase) comería en casa de mi hermana menor.
Pronoun
A word that takes the place of a noun.
Example:
Lucas es buenísimo. Él (pronoun) siempre piensa en mí.

Sentence
A word or (more commonly) a group of words that expresses a complete idea. A sentence includes a subject and a verb. It begins with a capital letter and ends with a mark of end punctuation. Example:
María siempre tiene ganas de tomar un helado en San Telmo.
Subject
The part of a sentence that indicates what it is about.
Example:
Carlos (subject) quiere estudiar ingeniería en la UBA.
Tense
The time of a verb’s action or state of being, such as past, present, and future. See Forming the Past Tense of Regular Verbs.
Example:
Hace veinte años el tango estaba agonizando [past tense] pero ahora está renaciendo [present tense].
Verb
The part of speech that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being.
Example:
Lucas juega (verb) tenis todos los domingos.

Fuentes Consultadas >> Grammar . About . Com >> Word Reference >> Gramática Sucinta

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Oraciones subordinadas adjetivas – Subordination with Adjective Clauses

Coordination is a useful way of connecting ideas that are roughly equal in importance. But often you need to show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another.

Let’s see.

Mi madre es una mujer muy trabajadora.
Ella siempre trabaja los fines de semana.

One option is to coordinate the two sentences:

Mi madre es una mujer muy trabajadora y siempre trabaja los fines de semana.
When the sentences are coordinated in this way, each main clause is given equal emphasis.

But… What if we want to place greater emphasis on one statement than on another?

Mi madre, que es una mujer muy trabajadora, siempre trabaja los fines de semana.
As shown here, the adjective clause does the job of an adjective and follows the noun that it modifies– madre. Like a main clause, an adjective clause contains a subject (in this case, que) and a verb (es). But unlike a main clause an adjective clause can’t stand alone: it has to follow a noun in a main clause. For this reason, an adjective clause is considered to be subordinate to the main clause.

Ejemplos

El restaurante que me recomendaste es bueno y barato.

La falda que me compré es comodísima.

El día que conocí a mi marido fue el día más feliz de mi vida.

Fuentes Consultadas >> Grammar . About . Com >> Word Reference >> Gramática Sucinta

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